"In this article, I argue that Eritrea and Ethiopia are well on their way to forming a confederation. This would be the fourth type of configuration for the two countries. Take One: Eritrea-Ethiopia Federation of 1952. Take Two: Dissolution of Federation and Annexation of 1962. Take Three: Referendum and Independence of 1993. Take Four: the “Peace & Friendship” Agreement of 2018. What’s noteworthy is that, unlike all previous configurations (federation, dissolution, independence), the present one is happening without the vote (even a coerced one), or even the knowledge of, the Eritrean people..."